Keller's ARCS Model

  1. Incongruity and Conflict: Use contradictions, play "devil’s advocate"
  2. Concreteness: Use visual representations, anecdotes and biographies
  3. Variability: Change—tone of voice, movements, instructional format, media, layout & design of instructional material, and interaction patterns
  4. Humor: Use puns, humorous analogies & anecdotes, and jokes (w/moderation)
  5. Inquiry: Use problem-solving activities and constructive practices
  6. Participation: Use games, simulations, role-playing, etc.
  1. Experience:
    1. Tell learners how new learning will use existing skills
    2. Use analogies to relate current learning to prior experience
    3. Relate to learner interests
  2. Present Worth: Explicitly state the current value of instruction
  3. Future Usefulness: Relate instruction to future goals (have students participate in this)
  4. Need Matching: Give students the opportunity to achieve, exercising responsibility, authority, and influence
  5. Modeling: Use enthusiasm, peer-modeling, etc.
  6. Choice: (student choice)
  1. Learning Requirements: Advise students of requirements (goals & objectives).
  2. Difficulty: Sequence activities in increasing difficulty w/continual but reasonable challenge.
  3. Expectations: Use metacognition to forecast outcomes based upon effort; set realistic goals.
  4. Attributions: Encourage students to internalize locus of control by attributing success to themselves
  5. Self-Confidence: Foster using confidence strategies
  1. Natural Consequences: Allow students to use newly acquired skills in realistic, successful settings
  2. Unexpected Rewards: Include student expectation of extrinsic reward (for boring tasks) or use a surprise reward
  3. Positive Outcomes: Provide feedback—praise, personal attention, motivation—immediately
  4. Avoidance of Negative Influences: Don’t use threats, surveillance practices and total external evaluation
  5. Scheduling: Repeat reinforcement at fluctuating, non-predictable intervals