- Incongruity and Conflict: Use contradictions, play "devil’s advocate"
- Concreteness: Use visual representations, anecdotes and biographies
- Variability: Change—tone of voice, movements, instructional format, media, layout & design of instructional material, and interaction patterns
- Humor: Use puns, humorous analogies & anecdotes, and jokes (w/moderation)
- Inquiry: Use problem-solving activities and constructive practices
- Participation: Use games, simulations, role-playing, etc.
- Tell learners how new learning will use existing skills
- Use analogies to relate current learning to prior experience
- Relate to learner interests
- Present Worth: Explicitly state the current value of instruction
- Future Usefulness: Relate instruction to future goals (have students participate in this)
- Need Matching: Give students the opportunity to achieve, exercising responsibility, authority, and influence
- Modeling: Use enthusiasm, peer-modeling, etc.
- Choice: (student choice)
- Learning Requirements: Advise students of requirements (goals & objectives).
- Difficulty: Sequence activities in increasing difficulty w/continual but reasonable challenge.
- Expectations: Use metacognition to forecast outcomes based upon effort; set realistic goals.
- Attributions: Encourage students to internalize locus of control by attributing success to themselves
- Self-Confidence: Foster using confidence strategies
- Natural Consequences: Allow students to use newly acquired skills in realistic, successful settings
- Unexpected Rewards: Include student expectation of extrinsic reward (for boring tasks) or use a surprise reward
- Positive Outcomes: Provide feedback—praise, personal attention, motivation—immediately
- Avoidance of Negative Influences: Don’t use threats, surveillance practices and total external evaluation
- Scheduling: Repeat reinforcement at fluctuating, non-predictable intervals